HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Thu, 26 Nov 2020 15:31:46 GMT 欧美三级黄色电影

[X] CLOSEMAIN MENU

[X] CLOSEIN THIS SECTION

Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

‘Our hope is that the Worst Passwords of the Year list will cause people to take steps to protect themselves online.’

Show MoreHide

But Mr Stevenson said “this might reflect that the US is being bolder than the EU in protecting domestic steel producers”.
Winners: Pelicans
You might want to hope that people shared these articles as a joke. I want to hope that. But we can’t: the analysis points to a recent BuzzFeed and Ipsos Public Affairs poll which found that 75 percent of Americans (84 percent of Republicans and 71 percent of Democrats) were easily tricked by fake headlines. What a fantastic year for fact-checking and rational thought and Mark Zuckerberg’s self-awareness.

Cross talk “Do Not Blame Me” (Cao Yunjin and Liu Yuntian)
CEO:作为汽车业新人,通用CEO玛丽o芭拉和福特CEO马克o菲尔兹开始密切观注菲亚特和克莱斯勒集团CEO的塞尔吉奥o马基奥尼的一举一动。虽然他的商业帝国横跨欧美两个大陆,但马基奥尼还是成功地把公司的美国市场份额提高了1.2个点,完全没有受到公司最弱的一条产品线以及八速变速箱问题的影响。
Length of program: 24 months

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

开年刚需盘集中供应 刚需新标准已经提高到300万

在星期六晚上他们再次献唱《悲惨世界》原声《Stars》。
可穿戴设备通常分为三大类:像健身追踪器这样的复杂设备;像智能手表这样的智能配件(由于它们可以运行第三方应用);还有像谷歌眼镜这样完全自主、可以直接联网的智能可穿戴设备。
More than an hour into Apple’s annual shareholder meeting in February, Tim Cook had patiently fielded questions ranging from its plans for the television market to what he thought of Google Glass. But when one audience member tried to push Apple’s chief executive on the profitability of Apple’s various environmental initiatives, such as its solar-powered data centre, Mr Cook snapped.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

5.3-D 打印耳朵
就像你不需要一个智能开瓶器一样,你同样不需要一个智能酒瓶。kuvee是一个有屏幕的酒瓶,它可以帮助您了解您最喜爱的葡萄酒。除了它还能为你的葡萄酒保鲜30天,其余也没别的什么功能。
But there's little doubt this was also an 'acqui-hire,' in which the person being bought is just as important as the product. D'Aloisio is now working full time in Yahoo!'s London office, and his youth, his energy and his undeniable it-factor have brought the formerly musty tech giant a much-needed injection of cool. Yahoo! CEO Marissa Mayer -who lends the company some of her own it-factor-praises his 'commitment to excellence in design and simplicity' and says she is 'inspired by the creativity and tenacity Nick brings to his work.'

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • In an effort to protect China's role in the global economy as a manufacturing hub, the central bank devalued the currency in August, in the biggest drop in decades. Later in the year, after the International Monetary Fund added the renminbi to its group of global reserve currencies, the value of the currency fell further, possibly reflecting capital outflows.
  • 一线城市房价持续降温 金九银十或难掀波澜
  • 4. Stop eating, gotta get those cheekbone sharp enough to cut butter.
  • 连续降息推动楼市升温加速 首日二手房主忙加价
  • 市场竞争激烈 门窗企业如何逆境求生
  • n. 喜剧,滑稽,幽默事件
    Then why do you go out and do the things you tell us not to do? 你们大人为什么去做与你们教导孩子相反的事情呢?

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 国内最先进涂料项目落户青岛 总投资约2.6亿, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

Show MoreHide

The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

温榆河孙河段将现湿地水乡景观

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

湖南部分地区水泥企业掀起价格战

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

Show MoreHide

How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • But that recovery has also seen the size of bonuses drop: last year the average payout was Rmb12,821 ($1,861), about Rmb2,000 more than in 2015 but still roughly Rmb800 below the 2014 average. More than a quarter of those surveyed who saw their bonus shrink last year blamed the decrease on poor company performance.
    n. 路线,(固定)线路,途径
  • 欢迎来到英国,不过在我开始介绍之前请先接受我们的道歉。你们在入境检查时等了4个小时的噩梦本不应该是英国轻视外国人的象征。这只反映了英国在一项如此重要的赛事来临时对旅游基础建设的投入严重不足。换句话说,是英国政府怠慢了你们。别不开心,政府对我们也不咋地。
    最佳女歌手:米兰达·兰伯特
    But perhaps we are finally there. Perhaps the curtain had to fall on the show before it could fall on that part of the ready-to-wear shows. Perhaps the history hamster wheel that we seem to be on — which has seen us cycle through the 1970s as well as some of the big hair and bigger shoulder pads of the 1980s (yes, we are there again) — will finally stop turning.
    2. 米拉?库妮丝
    8.A New iPhone

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 新疆建材行业水泥产值比重下降
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 西安官方:成立调查组 查实摇号信息登记真实性

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

Show MoreHide

Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

作为本田的高端品牌,讴歌去年共售出167,843辆,同比微增1.5%。而在美国这一备受豪华车品牌青睐的市场上,丰田的高端品牌雷克萨斯销量增幅为13.7%,宝马增幅为9.8%,奥迪增幅为15.2%,梅赛德斯-奔驰增幅为6.5%。
People in fourth-tier and smaller cities have economic pressures close to the national average level in terms of income, education, medical services and elderly care, while family and human relationship stress are higher than second- and third-tier cities.
3. Elasticity of Demand.The cure for low prices is low prices. That cliché can be applied to both the supply and demand side of the equation. Will oil selling at fire sale prices spur renewed demand? In some countries where oil is more regulated, low prices may not trickle down to the retail level. Countries like Indonesia are scrapping subsidies, which will be a boon to state coffers but will diminish the benefits to consumers. However, in the U.S., gasoline prices are now below $2.40 per gallon, more than 35 percent down from mid-2014. That has led to an uptick in gasoline consumption. In the waning days of 2014, the U.S. consumed gasoline at the highest daily rate since 2007. Low prices could spark higher demand, which in turn could send oil prices back up.
adj. 准确的,精确的
The Magic have bounced between average and bad, and they're currently on a downswing. Now Aaron Gordon and Nikola Vucevic are coming off the bench and Mario Hezonja is buried.
2.《活力王子》中的王子几乎破产
Obama's victory in the hotly contested swing state of Ohio - as projected by TV networks - put him over the top in the fight for the 270 electoral votes needed to clinch the White House and ended Romney's hopes of pulling off a string of swing-state upsets。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

Show MoreHide

Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

Show MoreHide

Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • This slide in the dollar value of exports has entirely been a price effect, driven by lower commodity prices. In volume terms, emerging market exports have continued to rise since 2014, even if volume growth in year-on-year terms has moderated to around 2 per cent, a fraction of the double-digit rates witnessed either side of the global financial crisis, as the second chart shows.
  • 房子过去20年里缘何暴涨?房价3到4年后将迎拐点
  • 周二在华盛顿DC倒下的大树把一条街拦住了。
    位于加州的斯坦福大学商学院(Stanford Graduate School of Business)排名第二,2016年排在第五位,该学院曾在2014年获得亚军。宾夕法尼亚大学沃顿商学院(Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania)排名第三。
  • 使用寿命差距大 国内五金件成卫浴“心头痛”
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 美国品牌如Chipotle、德克萨斯仪器公司和通用动力第一次出现在了该榜单上。
    “有个员工把一块上面写着‘我不干了!’的砖头扔进公司窗户。”
  • Striking a balance may take a while, but working toward this list as a goal for starting your company will make the difference. How an owner feels about progress and how quickly a business can be up and running — and feeding that bottom line — will swiftly feel the impact.
    这种现象部分原因可能来自人民币汇率总体的疲软,原因是这会令境外的商品变得更加昂贵。今年1月人民币汇率下跌了1.3%,而在2015年最后一个季度人民币贬值了2.2%。不过,中国的出口仍未因人民币贬值而受到提振。
  • The economy has registered a slower but stable performance with good momentum for growth.
    1号 what the fuck: “职场辣妈”的新境界
  • 中国银行遵循了相同趋势,利润增幅仅为1.3%,年化平均资产回报率(ROAA)降低了0.1个百分点。
    Despite car and truck sales that motored past 16 million for the first time since 2007, recalls dominated the news for most of the year. General Motors GM 1.42% held center stage, dealing with cascading revelations about faulty ignition switches and recalling millions of vehicles. While GM opted for something approaching full disclosure of its missteps , publishing an report into company-wide fumbles, Japanese airbag maker Tanaka chose to stonewall. It left any remedies up to its beleaguered customers, notably Honda and Toyota. They are the ones who deal with the fallout of exploding safety devices that fatally fired shrapnel throughout the passenger compartment.
    两周后,伯恩海默等几十位著名的早期绘画大师作品交易商出席伦敦的夜间拍卖会。过去,他们通常会在这些拍卖会上购买一些作品,以备在第二年3月的荷兰马斯特里赫特欧洲美术博览会(Maastricht European Fine Art Fair)上展示。但是由于卖家们鼓励苏富比和佳士得报出更高的估价来争夺自己的拍品,所以拍卖行只针对少数富豪进行宣传,现场竞价十分冷清。
  • The media are annoying, we get that, Your Royal Highness, but there may have been more dignified ways for you (and the establishment you represent) to air your concerns.
    酒店和餐饮业高管薪酬均值增速最快,均为47.58%。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 北京市住建委:因职住不平衡等原因,公租房可申请换房 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

宜华木业董事长“失联”后现身 5.7亿并购恒安兴

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

英国退欧或将长期影响欧盟木质家具市场

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

广东户籍人口年均增长12‰,城镇化率提高到45% 不同城市都有啥入户政策?

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

提醒:玉林在售红木家具普遍“无证”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 著名美国谐星梅丽莎?麦卡西收入为3300万美元,比去年增加了1000万美元。
  • Overall twenty-eight thousand bombs and other munitions were exploded over Yugoslavia a country the size of Ohio. William Cohen then secretary of defense characterized Allied Force as “the most precise application of airpower in history.” Some five hundred civilians died in the bombing a remarkably low number for such a high number of munitions expended. In its own account of the campaignNATO stresses that targets were “carefully sexted” and that “massive effort was made to minimise the impact of the air campaign on the Serb civilian population.”
  • 七部委联手打击投机炒房

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 特里萨?梅(Theresa May)依然面临着党内阻力。自由民主党(Liberal Democrats)的智者兼领导人文斯?凯布尔(Vince Cable)依然认为脱欧可能不会真的发生。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 我发现自己经常担心一些事情
    When I find myself wanting to shout “No!” to an opportunity, that’s a sure sign to me that the answer should probably be “Yes.” So, I take a deep breath and analyze the situation as objectively as possible.
    《余秀华:从普通农妇到著名诗人》(A Chinese Poet’s Unusual Path From Isolated Farm Life to Celebrity)
  • 即便亚洲国家推出了在其他国家推动ETF市场蓬勃发展的监管措施,也仍存在其他障碍。例如,蒙塔纳里表示,提供给亚洲投资者的产品大多与国内市场的股票挂钩,因此ETF没有被用来让投资者在国内投资于外国市场。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 如下是我们对中国2014年的10个预测
  • 绿地否认与女记者被打有关 公司保安被拘留
  • Experts offer advice for surviving -- and thriving -- in the next year:

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 废旧家具“无家可归” 如何处置成难题
  • Household substance abuse
  • 五大行:净利比惨 个人按揭贷款建行仍是领头羊
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

用假户口簿“碰运气 黑中介伪造证件买房

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 谁来告诉我甲醛有没有超标?一个自如租客的亲历与追问
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 2015中国整体衣柜十大品牌出炉 索菲亚好莱客上榜
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

5. The top 300bureaucrats will rally behind Xi’s reforms and these bold new programs, backingthe central government while bringing these ambitions to their provincialgovernments and setting parallel growth goals at home. Detailed plans forreform and accelerated growth will be set, and then promptly executed, ingeographies across China. We expect the tier three and four markets torally again this year, growing faster than tier one and two cities.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

斯坦福大学商学院校友的平均薪资最高,为19.5万美元,但总体而言,排在前15名之内的MBA课程在收入、职业发展和满意度方面都非常接近。除了一所学校外,这些商学院的校友平均薪资均超过15万美元,与就读MBA以前的收入相比,薪资上涨了大约100%。
n. 经营方法,行为态度
7. 阿里尔·福克斯曼《型时代》
问:对于你的作品在西方广受欢迎一事,你是怎么看的?
数百所国内高校的2017届、2015届和2013届毕业生、共281万人参与了这项调查。
除了印度,其他金砖国家——巴西,俄罗斯,中国和南非——也削减了对美国政府债券的持有。
上海复旦大学社会发展与公共政策学院院长彭希哲周二告诉环球时报,在产业结构升级的过程中,劳动密集型产业搬离都市圈,是导致这一人口变迁的最主要原因之一。
雨人的原型没数过牌,但脑力也很出众。金·皮克是个独一无二的天才,拥有近乎完美的记忆。他丰富的技能包括记住地图上的每一条路,无数歌曲的作曲家和日期,以及详细得令人难以置信的的历史事实。《雨人》出名后,皮克将毕生投入到在美国各地奔走,为残疾人发起活动,用自己的独特天赋鼓舞他们。
6.你昨天穿得比平时好看10倍。
A video of Bi Fujian, a popular television host, poking fun at a song from a Cultural Revolution-era opera about the Chinese civil war, with his own critical asides about Mao and the Communist Party, appeared online in April. Despite the government's efforts to contain its spread, it circulated widely, with some commenters defending Mr. Bi's opinions and his right to express them.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

一线城市认房认贷 二手房市场或受影响最大

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 如果你计划前往巴西去看奥运会,将注意力集中在运动和娱乐上面,谷歌可以全方位的帮到你。为迎接2016年里约奥运会,搜索巨头谷歌将在谷歌巴西地图推出“探索”功能。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Song “The Spring Blossom” (Na Ying)
  • 40年住房变迁:百姓“小确幸” 民生大变化
  • 25 July
  • 建材行业:国企改革风口再至
  • 据悉,地方级的工作经验将对申请者有利,其中有两年以上工作经验的人员将会具有一定的优势。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 倒闭潮依旧“热恋”卫浴行业 九句真言助经销商免受其害
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 除了印度,其他金砖国家——巴西,俄罗斯,中国和南非——也削减了对美国政府债券的持有。
  • 3.Good problem solver

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

红星美凯龙2大电商矛盾激化 传星易家已解散

View All Footnotes